The kidney is composed of a series of ducts and gloneruli. blood passes through these structures and fluid and dissolved molecules are extracted. Interstitial nephritis is a kidney disorder caused by inflammation of the tubules and the spaces between the tubules and the glomeruli. Alternative names include tubulointerstitial nephritis, Nephritis - interstitial, Acute interstitial (allergic) nephritis
Causes of Interstitial Nephritis
Interstitial nephritis involves inflammation of the spaces between the renal tubules and may include inflammation of the tubules. It may be a temporary lesion, most often associated with the effects of various medications on the kidney, or it may be chronic and progressive. Interstitial nephritis is one of the lesions associated with analgesic nephropathy, and can also occur with allergic reaction to a drug (acute interstitial allergic nephritis) or as a side effect of medications. Medications commonly associated with interstitial nephritis include antibiotics such as penicillin, ampicillin, methicillin, sulfonamide medications, and others. Other medications include nonsteroidal anti inflammatory drugs, furosemide, and thiazide diuretics. The disorder may occur 2 or more weeks after exposure to the medication. Interstitial nephritis causes reduction in kidney function, ranging from mild dysfunction to acute kidney failure. About one-half of the cases will exhibit decreased urine output and other signs of acute renal failure. The kidney may fail to concentrate the urine when water intake is reduced. The kidney may fail to regulate acid/base levels of the body may be reduced, with failure to excrete acid appropriately in the urine. Metabolic acidosis may occur because of the inability to excrete acid. The disorder may progress to chronic renal failure or end-stage renal disease. The acute form of interstitial nephritis is common and may account for approximately 15% of cases of acute kidney failure. Risks include exposure to medications that may have nephrotoxic effects. The disorder may be more severe and more likely to lead to chronic or permanent kidney damage in the elderly.
Signs and Symptoms of Interstitial Nephritis
Interstitial nephritis frequently results in an increase or decrease in urine output. Fever often develops. Nausea and vomiting are common. Mental status changes occur and can run from mild confusion and drowsiness to coma. Fluid retention from the non-function kidneys is associated with weight gain. similarly, there can be swelling in various regions of the body. blood in the urine and rash can occur.
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Medical Content Last Updated on 07/12/2008
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